We are using cookies to implement functions like login, shopping cart or language selection for this website. Furthermore we use Google Analytics to create anonymized statistical reports of the usage which creates Cookies too. You will find more information in our privacy policy.
OK, I agree I do not want Google Analytics-Cookies
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache



Forgotten password?


J Orofac Pain 10 (1996), No. 3     1. June 1996
J Orofac Pain 10 (1996), No. 3  (01.06.1996)

Page 254-262

A cross-sectional study of prevalence and etiology of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in high school and university students
Conti / Ferreira / Pegoraro / Conti / Salvador
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and need for treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in students living in Bauru, Brazil. The role of occlusal and emotional factors was also addressed. The presence and severity of TMD was determined by using a self-reported anamnestic questionnaire composed of 10 questions regarding common TMD symptoms. The symptoms were transposed into a severity classification according to the number and frequency of positive responses. Occlusalevaluation included an analysis of retruded contact position, intercuspal position, anterolateral guidance, and nonworking side contacts during mandibular movements. Palpation of the muscles and temporomandibular joints were performed to detect clinical signs of TMD. A chi square test was used to compare clinical and occlusal data with the presence and severity of TMd. A total of 0.65% of the subjects had severe TMD symptoms, 5.81% had moderate symptoms, and 34.84% had mild symptoms. Those with severe and moderate symptom levels were interpreted to be in need of treatment. Symptoms were found significantly more frequently in females than in males (P < .01). Self-reported emotional tension and parafunctional habits demonstrated strong associations with should be reconsidered, and reversible and conservative procedures should be the first choice for managing TMD patients.