J Orofac Pain 28 (2014), No. 4 19. Dec. 2014
J Orofac Pain 28 (2014), No. 4 (19.12.2014)
Craniofacial Pain of Cardiac Origin Is Associated with Inferior Wall Ischemia
Kreiner, Marcelo / Alvarez, Ramón / Waldenström, Anders / Michelis, Virginia / Muñiz, Rosana / Isberg, Annika
Aims: To investigate possible associations between the presence of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin and the location of cardiac ischemia and conventional risk factors.
Methods: A total of 326 consecutive patients with confirmed myocardial ischemia (192 males, 134 females, mean age 64 years) were studied. Demographic details, health history, risk factors, prodromal symptoms, electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, and pain characteristics during the ischemic episode were assessed. The location of the ischemia according to the ECG findings was categorized as anterior, inferior, or lateral. Univariate chi-square analyses and a multivariate logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Two age subgroups (< 65 and > 65) were established when controlling for covariates.
Results: Craniofacial pain of cardiac origin was significantly associated with an inferior localization of cardiac ischemia (P < .001) and was more frequently reported in diabetic patients (P = .014). Thirty-eight patients (12%) did not experience chest pain during the myocardial ischemia. Nine patients (3%) experienced a prodromal angina episode without chest pain.
Conclusion: The occurrence of craniofacial pain during myocardial ischemia, with or without an acute myocardial infarction, was associated with ischemia within the inferior wall. This result suggests the involvement of the vagal afferent system in the mechanisms of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin.
Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia, chest pain, craniofacial pain, dental pain