J Orofac Pain 33 (2019), No. 2 3. May 2019
J Orofac Pain 33 (2019), No. 2 (03.05.2019)
Relationship Between Psychosocial Factors and Pain in the Jaw and Neck Regions Shortly After Whiplash Trauma
Lampa, Ewa / Wänman, Anders / List, Thomas / Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
Aims: To assess jaw pain shortly after whiplash trauma in relation to neck pain, physical symptoms, depression, and jaw pain-related disability.
Methods: A total of 181 cases (106 women and 75 men, mean ages 33.7 and 36.8 years, respectively) were examined within 1 month after a whiplash trauma and compared to 117 controls (68 women and 49 men, 34.2 and 30.9 years, respectively). Participants rated current jaw and neck pain intensity on a numeric rating scale and rated nonspecific physical symptoms and depression symptoms on subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The nonspecific physical symptoms were further analyzed with and without pain items. Disability related to jaw pain and neck pain was also assessed. Differences between groups were calculated using Mann- Whitney U test, and correlations were measured using Spearman correlation.
Results: Compared to controls, cases reported higher current jaw and neck pain intensity (P < .0001), together with higher scores for physical nonpain and pain symptoms, depression, and jaw pain-related disability (P < .0001 for all). For cases, there were moderate correlations between nonspecific physical symptoms and jaw pain and neck pain, as well as between jaw pain-related disability and jaw pain and neck pain (r = 0.43 to 0.77, P < .0001 for all). Low correlations were observed between depression and jaw pain and neck pain (r = 0.34 to 0.39, both P < .0001).
Conclusion: Shortly after a whiplash trauma, pain in the jaw and neck regions is associated with the severity of psychosocial factors. Thus, psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of pain in the jaw region after whiplash trauma.
Keywords: jaw, pain, psychosocial factors, temporomandibular disorders, whiplash injury